By Yujin Kim
Historically, magazines, much like their printed counterparts, newspapers, have long held the pivotal position of time specific responses and representations to pop culture, traditions, trends and interests. The substance of newspapers is most frequently consumed on a daily basis with information and time based events integral to its experience. Magazines however, have and continue to cover a slightly more diverse range of issues in a variety of interest areas while also maintaining an awareness of the visual experience.
Because of this, the magazine cover interestingly stands often as a visual sign of the times. The magazine cover sometimes serves as a visual identifier and reflector of eras, society, and culture. It collectively expresses social tendencies while also gauging a certain segment of graphic design methods, trends, image use and typography. The state and existence of magazines in Korea are very much a testament to this. Since their introduction in the late 19th century, magazines have lived what some may dub a life of extreme ups and downs in Korea that some may also barometer as a reflection of modern Korean history. This particular research effort attempts to examine some of these ups and downs but will do so more through the lens of the graphic design history of these magazine covers. These covers often reflect some of the often turbulent states of Korean history during this time as well as the cultural context that produced them.
1 The Onset of the Magazine, An Era of Developing Awareness
In the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, many associations, academic societies, and religious groups published magazines introducing modern culture and science. Most of these magazines were rooted in a developing sense of social awareness and took a role in introducing foreign politics, culture, geography, and science. Independent thoughts and motifs were also the center of some of these publications as well as an effort to augment public education and engagement.
Since magazines of this period, were mainly lead by intellectuals, they were often not published for profit but for the sole purpose of speaking for and to the public. As a result of this, the design was not an important part of them. Unlike the complexity of today’s covers, which often include multiple headlines hinting at the content within, these covers were largely comprised of the title with very little else. Vertical writing systems, originating from China, were often found on many of these covers.
1-1 Association Journals and Their Typographic Covers
This was primarily the rule of thumb prior to the development of Hangul. Daechosun Dokribhyupbo one of the oldest Korean magazines, was first published in November 1896 by Jaepil Seo. The cover shows a bilaterally symmetric layout on traditionally ruled paper. While only showing the titles, this cover is an example of this very straightforward approach free of the unnecessary. Reflecting the circumstances of this era, the title is written in three different languages. An English title is placed horizontally on the top. The Korean and Chinese titles were written vertically right below.
1-2 Layout, Design and the Influence of Japan
Due to the Korean Independence Movement which took place on March 1, 1919, the repression policy on all media at the time during Japanese colonialization was temporarily lifted. At this time, Japan began to allow a limited amount of press freedom which ultimately briefly revived newspaper and magazine publications. However, not long after this, the Japanese government instituted another policy that set to eliminate written and spoken Korean. The influence of this policy was so significant that most printing, publishing, and even photography ended up following the then traditional Japanese style. Magazine cover illustrations, drawings, or layouts were often literally copied from Japanese publications. With the absence of Korean metal type casters, most magazine titles were written in Chinese characters. Vertical and cross writing systems were seen very frequently. Since the adoption of western culture was due to the influence of Japan and Japanese newspapers, the use of Chinese characters was generally considered textbook practice.
Issued in 1913, Idolboy avoided using Chinese characters while encouraging the use of pure Korean words. In the same context, ‘boy’ in the title is, in fact, not from an English word but from a combination of [bo], the Chinese word 見 meaning ‘to see’ and [i], a common noun ending in Korean, which means ‘something to see/read.’ An image of a general riding a horse against a vibrant red background in the cover is visually stimulating. What stands out conspicuously is that the use of modern typography without serif designed was to be read from right to left and the quadrate layout.
In October 1914, the first issue of Chungchun, was a record three hundred pages long. By printing Gwangsu Lee’s short story, it became the first magazine that both promoted and fostered modern Korean literature Unprecedentedly, for the cover, a Western style painting by Heedong Ko was printed in bright and vivid colors. The title ‘Chungchun,’ although printed in white Chinese characters in black squares, was good enough to give a strong impression in combination with the rich colors in the background.
2 New Beginnings, Qualitative Improvement and Good Times
1945 saw the official end of the age of Japanese colonialism in Korea. In 1950, following the Korean War, the Korean magazine industry sees the beginnings of a new era for publications. Due to this liberation, the publishing world regained a then, long absent, freedom of speech. The Korean War not only opened up a new chapter in Korean history, it also formed the basis for the development of a variety of magazines. This variety and this freedom also paved the way for a change in the perception of magazines. Since the 1960’s, due to economic developmental policy, industrialization gained a certain amount of momentum which in turn, fueled a development of graphic design as a means to keep up with societal trends. By 1975, the number of periodicals published in Korea exceeded one thousand. As the years continued and rapid development paved the way, the introduction of art direction as well as photo composition, ushered in a new era where magazines grew not only in variety and quality, but conceptually as well. Korean magazine publications began to introduce a new breed of editorial design that in turn slowly but surely lead to the establishment of an identity of its own. The 1980’s saw rapid economic development and the emergence of a diverse range of pop culture. Yet this also came hand in hand with a growing number of social issues and agendas. As much as such cultural ambivalence was widespread, it was even more so, clearly exhibited in this ever changing and ever growing magazine industry.
2-1 The Roots of Art Direction and the Beginnings of an Identity
The emergence of professional designers opened up a new chapter in the experience of magazines. From both editing to design, the organic involvement of art directors became key to producing excellent products and more importantly, well-done visual experiences. Changes in technology, from typesetting to photo composition, resulted in the expansion of sophisticatedly rendered color pages, the application of conceptual illustrations and novel layouts. All of these were decisive in the establishment of strong characteristics and identities for each magazine. This also paved the path for a significant shift and surge in public interest for graphic design. This enhanced awareness for graphic design as well as a more reflective and conscious nod towards traditional Korean culture combined for what was the beginnings of a new identity both in publishing and heritage.
This newfound voice in art direction was at the foundation of this movement and magazines of this era became exemplary for this voice as well as for a significant improvement in quality and finish. Some of the integral magazines of this time included Purikipeun Namu, Madang, Monthly Mut, Saemi Gipeun Mool.
Amongst this new wave of magazines, Purikipeun Namu, first published in 1976 by Britannica Korea, was the first magazine that fully adopted art direction in the production and conceptualization of editorial design. This was to later prove to be a significant influence on the Korean magazine industry as a whole. Along with art director Sangchul Lee, publisher Changki Han, who had, at that time, a certain passion for the traditions of Korean culture, realized the potential beauty of Korea through novel and conceptual design. Under what was then deemed a certain editorial policy for ‘rediscovering’ the beauty of Korea, they proactively practiced what many might consider ‘Korean’ based design and writing systems. Some of the ‘vertical writing’ systems of the past were implemented as a means to realize the natural beauty inherent to Korean writing systems before foreign influences. For magazine covers, in particular, systematic grid system was utilized to create a sense of both unification and diversity. A visual identity was maintained and given through the consistent application of both size and placement of the magazine title. Changki Han had a certain confident manner in which he approached modularization of magazine titles. This went against the convention of using the rectangular blocks typically in use to house Korean typography. At this time he also created and commercialized a newly modularized font, Hunminjungeum-che. This title gave originality to this magazine and was proof of the potential of advancement in Hangul typography.
From the very first issue, the magazine hired a professional photo-journalist and showed the potential of powerful photography cropped in progressive angles and layouts. At this time, it was visually captivating enough to surprise and draw the attention of many a reader. Purikipeun Namu also used a variety of distinctive graphic elements, such as rule marks from woodblocks, Mokpan-che, Goongseo-che, traditional patterns, and quotation marks. By accompanying design with such variations, they generated a rhythmic sense within the grid system. These resulted in again, a compelling combination of both graphic design with traditional Korean culture. Purikipeun Namu’s pioneering effort in reinterpreting traditional Korean aesthetic values in a contemporary method was a first at this time. And this in many ways became a landmark in the history of Korean magazines as well as Korean editorial design.
Saemi Gipeun Mool is another magazine that the publisher of Purikipeun Namu, Changki Han, produced and introduced to the editorial landscape of Korea at this time. It is considered one of the first magazines many deem to be quite distinctively Korean in design. Far from consumption driven motifs, which were often characteristics of many women’s publications at the time, this magazine dealt with women’s subjects like social status, culture and education. It’s contents mirrored some of the current events, trends and thinking towards women in society at the time. The title, Saemi Gipeun Mool, adopted from a passage in Yongbiochunga was written in a newly developed style, Deep Sammool (a.k.a. Saemool-che). As seen from the reader’s standpoint, the entire typesetting of this publication – from the look, the size, the spaces between the letters and the lines to the length of the line of writing – was developed solely on and from the title of this particular magazine. This title design greatly distinguished, visually and conceptually, this magazine from others, and its applicability was maximized by utilizing it as the main typographic choice of which to represent the contents. Unlike other magazines, the cover models were not celebrities but often depictions of ordinary women. The cover format was atypical as well at this time and this uniqueness also piqued the attention and interest of readers. To this day, Saemi Gipeun Mool is remembered as a magazine that established a strong identity that was very distinct in this time. It was also noted for ultimately representing a strong sense of both Korean sentiment and aesthetics.
Madang was a magazine that understood and pin-pointed some cultural deficiencies that readers at the time were seeking. It adopted not only a design system run by an art director but also a product management system where editorial designers were directly involved in the making and production processes which often resulted in a more finely tuned output. Another art director, Sangsu Ahn, presented at this time a structured design format that elevated in some ways the societal role of the press in presenting awareness for public standards and the popularization of culture. An-che, which he designed, characterizes Madang in a more contemporary method and revived a certain attention towards the use of Hangul. This phenomena, although pushing design standards lead to much controversy over legibility. The Hangul characters which were now existing in non-rectangular blocks or clusters of text attracted a substantial amount of attention from the public both good and bad. Prior to this as well, and previously only used sparingly, photo composition type was now applied throughout the design of the magazine. This not only provided for a stronger foundation for more innovative design but also showed that in a magazine could be set entirely with photo composition type setting. Another significant aspect of this design was its strong identity. The consistent application of yellow on all of its covers as well as the maintenance of the Kyunmyungjo-che logo in white maintained a strong sense of personality which was not common in other publications at the time.
2-2 The Text Based Magazine, Bookazine / Mook
The upheaval state of Korea in the 1980’s was a clashing time consisting heavily of a sharp coexistence between a dizzyingly diverse pop culture and a harsh and sometimes unforgiving reality. Such ambivalence was also observed in certain dosages in the magazine industry. One such particular coexistence can be found in what can presumptuously be dubbed the ‘Bookazine’ or ‘Mook’. This is a hybrid between, as the words indicate a magazine and a book, whose emphasis is more on a direct and simple style rather than a highly structured approach. Due to the climate of heavy political oppression, only a few true voices at this time, could have any significant impact or resonance on society. In reflection of such an atmosphere, magazines of this time often reflected this through simple, understated design compositions on their covers. The most frequent combination occurred in the form of a title and an abstract of its contents. Sasanggye from the 1950’s, Changjak & Bipyung from the late 1960’s, and Shilchunmoonhak from the 1980’s all demonstrated such patterns. While often covering the latest in cultural and socially sensitive issues, their format was not only plain formally, their content also skewed very text heavy. Thus again, the term ‘Bookazine’ or ‘Mook’. This format drew a variety of responses and ultimately sparked some debate as there were those who felt that it could not truly encompass or capture public sentiment or sensibilities at the time.
3 The New Wave Digitalization + Globalization
The 1988 Summer Olympics marked the beginnings of a new rising international interest in Korean culture. Along with unprecedented economic growth, a somewhat mature sense of citizenship was beginning to develop within Korea. Respect for personal taste and individuality began to take common form amongst households at this time. Transitioning into the 1990’s, without exceptions, such societal transitions were often heavily the focus of magazines both in design and content. This lead in turn, to continued diversification and even more specialization within the magazine industry. This was also the beginning of the digital era and a more global outlook towards magazines.
3-1 Digitalization + Globalization Transitioning to the Contemporary Magazine
Due to the influence of Western culture, there was a greater need for publications from outside of Korea. So in turn, this rapid pace of development in Korea only became faster with the influx of world renowned magazines into mainstream culture. It became yet another opportunity for Korean magazines to upgrade their publishing standards. Competing against an increasing number of foreign magazines, the effort to attract more readers resulted in a significant enhancement in the design of magazine covers. Artistic and sensible layouts and the use of sophisticated typefaces were significant changes found in the new graphic design of these magazines. Some people were even voicing their concerns towards the editing style – overemphasizing graphic design while neglecting traditional culture and encouraging a somewhat ‘cultural colonialism’ from foreign magazines. Nonetheless, such varied attempts to progress the graphic design of these publications played an important role in the progression of contemporary editorial design.
i-magazine, in particular, showed the sensational yet temperate aesthetics of art director Woongrim Choi. Its use of artistic photos and quality printing made the magazine a tour de force in Korean graphic design history. Bold image cropping, strong contrast, and simple yet sophisticated layout introduced a ground-breaking style for editorial design.
3-2 Street Smarts, Free Magazines
Entering the 1990’s, one of the most significant phenomenons to take place in the publication industry was the birth of street magazines. These street magazines were free. A dramatic departure from the magazine financial model of the past. The target readers of these street magazines were the ‘new generation,’ the free-thinking and culture defining youth of Korea. Such magazines proliferated in heavy numbers amongst this younger audience and quite often referred to themselves as ‘leaders of street culture’ or ‘culture guerillas’. As a larger variety of these magazines made themselves available, reading street magazines became commonplace amongst this new group of readers. These magazines were above all, not dependent on sales and because of this, could take advantage of a number of possibilities in terms of experimental design. Because of this, it was quite often one could find a large range of extremely unconventional cover images, pioneering layouts and unprecedented application of illustrations.
In Seoul Magazine, the purported first street magazine in Korea, printed almost 70,000 free editions and 40,000 editions for sale. It supplied a jolt to the street magazine boom of the 1990’s. Adopting book sizes and a wide range of graphics never seen or used in Korea before, every volume of the magazine had the look of a special edition. Using unparalleled illustrations, simple and concise visual and text compositions, and a new cover format every month, the magazine rendered an experience unlike anything produced before in Korea.
ttl was published in 1999 in the form of a free street magazine by SK Telecom, a telecommunication conglomerate. Its goal was essentially to promote and develop their own brand. During the years that the term ‘new generation’ prevailed, the magazine became a venue for a young generation to freely express their feelings, identity and culture. Although it was originally created to function as a company’s marketing apparatus, it ultimately succeeded elsewhere through its use of unrestricted content and imagery. Its diverse and often constraints-free graphic design distinguished the magazine from other culturally based publications of the time. The covers were designed to appeal to their main subscribers, those in their late teens to early 20’s, with a strong use of creative typography and composition. The layouts, spreads and even structural pages such as the table of contents were often very intentionally synched with the cover design providing a unique amalgamation with every issue.
Often times closer to the public than any other media during this period, magazines provided an indispensably diverse variety of knowledge and spoke to a wide range of interests. Although often thought to be personal, expendable literature and media, they certainly have proved themselves to be cultural objects often representing social reality and in many instances raising public consciousness in readers. Korea in turn, has experienced innumerable ups and downs during the past 100 years and magazines have gone through just as many changes and progressions. Many of these magazines inadvertently contain and document some of the history and spirit of each of these up and down periods. They also are in possession of much of the written vernacular of these moments in time as formed by graphic designers both trained and untrained. Similar to a living historical witness, magazines in Korea have lived and formed a body that can in some ways represent a visual history of graphic design here. They continue to be invaluable resources in learning about the development and some of the origins of Korean graphic design.
These days, upon glancing at the visual landscape of magazine covers, the influence of international design is very palpable. The individualistic spirit and pioneering thought of the art direction based magazines of the 70’s and 80’s seem not as heavy of an influence. While the technology progresses, spiritual and cultural advancement it seems, are moving backward. And, the blame is on the lopsided attention of perhaps a process of dressing up externally. If internally, a process continues of simply imitating outstanding foreign designs and disregarding the makings of an internal identity, it is not much different than the context of previous generations. During Japanese colonialism, there was at times, an almost blind following of the powers that were. What is probably vital in the creation of our own magazines is that a certain spirit or culture must be contained and retained. Korean traditional culture and its meaning should be valued and rationally developed further in combination with advanced technology. By doing so, we may be able to establish a firm foundation not only for magazines with a stronger Korean identity but perhaps also for the publishing industry and perhaps even more importantly, the burgeoning history of Korean graphic design.
한국의 잡지 : 표지의 흐름
잡지는 신문과 더불어 시대를 반영하는 거울로 대표적인 출판물이다. 신문이 매일의 사건 사고를 전달하는 정보 중심의 매체로서 시대상을 반영한다면, 잡지는 그 시대를 풍미했던 전반적인 문화의 흐름은 물론 소소한 관심분야까지 반영하는 가장 문화적인 대중매체이다. 신문에 비해 다양한 분야의 이슈들을 다루었기 때문에 보다 효과적으로 내용을 전달하고 대중의 흥미와 시선을 끌기 위해 시각적인 부분을 중요한 편집 요소로 활용하였다.
특히 잡지 표지는 각 시대나 사회, 문화의 현실을 반영하고, 담고 있는 내용과 성향을 집약적으로 표현하는 하나의 작은 포스터로 시각적인 역할이 매우 중요하다. 시대적 배경에 따라 달라지는 타이포그래피와 이미지의 쓰임 등 그 시대의 그래픽디자인의 흐름을 느낄수 있는 독립적인 하나의 작품이라고도 볼 수 있겠다. 한국의 잡지는 처음 소개된 19세기 말부터 현재에 이르기까지 숨 가쁜 근 현대사속에서 수많은 종류가 쏟아져 나오고 사라지기를 반복하면서 다양한 변화의 일대기를 걸어왔다. 현재에 이르기까지 발간된 수많은 잡지의표지들은 파란만장한 역사의 변화만큼이나 각양각색의 얼굴을 하고 있다. 우리는 한국 잡지 표지의 변천사를 통하여 한국 근현대사의 굴곡과 함께 변모해 온 문화, 예술적 키워드들을 발견해내고, 그 안에 담긴 한국 그래픽디자인사의 흐름을 되짚어 보게 될 것이다. 잡지의 표지 만으로 한국 그래픽디자인사를 전부 설명할 수는 없겠지만 다양한 분야의 정신과 세태를 담아내며 역사와 함께 성장해 온 중요한 문화 매체인 만큼 한국 그래픽디자인의 흐름을 일부 짐작해 볼 수 있을 것이라 기대한다.
1 잡지의 시작, 개화기
1-1 제호의 텍스트가 주를 이루는 협회지
우리나라에서 가장 오래된 잡지라 할 수 있는 [대조선독립협회보]는 1896년 11월, 서재필이 창간한 잡지로 고전적인 장식괘선과 좌우대칭 레이아웃, 타입으로만 이루어져 단순하지만, 군더더기가 없는 형태의 표지를 보여준다. 윗부분에는 영문을 가로로 배치하고, 그 아랫부분을 둘로 나누어 왼쪽은 한글, 오른쪽은 한문으로 제호를 배치하였다. 한글, 한문, 영문 3개의 언어를 모두 표기하였는데 이는 다양한 문화를 수용하기 시작하던 개화기의 상황을 짐작하게 하는 구성이라 볼 수 있다. 개화기부터 광복 전까지 근대화 시기에는 주로 각종 협회와 학회, 그리고 종교 단체에서 새로운 학문과 문물을 소개하는 잡지들을 간행하였다. 발행된 잡지 대부분은 계몽적 성향을 띈 각종 논설을 통해 외국의 정치, 문화, 지리, 학문 등을 소개하고 개화와 자강사상을 전파하는 등의 역할을 하였다.
이 시기의 잡지들은 영리의 목적이 아닌 지식인들의 주도 아래 민중 대변지 역할을 주목적으로 간행되었기 때문에 특별히 디자인적인 측면이 강조되진 않았다. 주로 잡지의 제호만으로 표지가 구성되어 현대의 잡지와 달리 디자인적으로 단순한 면을 보이고 있다. 표지에 사용된 제호와 문자들은 세로쓰기 혹은 우횡서로 쓰인 것을 볼 수 있는데 이는 한글이 만들어지기 전 세로쓰기로 써오던 한자의글 틀에 한글을 그대로 맞추어 사용하였기 때문이다.
1-2 일본의 영향을 받은 레이아웃과 디자인
일본의 강제한일합방으로 언론의 암흑기를 보내야 했던 한국은 1919년 3.1운동 이후 일본이 한국언론에 대한 통치를 ‘무단정치’에서 ‘문화정치’로 전환하면서 신문, 잡지의 출판이 잠시 활기를 띠기도 했다. 그러나 일본에 의해 우리의 말과 글까지 말살되어진 ‘황국신민화’가 추진되면서 대부분의 문물은 친일적인 색채를 띠게되었다. 일본의 강제 식민통치를 거치면서 자국의 전통은 물론 문화적 자긍심까지도 금지되었던 한국의 문화는 일본의 절대적인 영향을 받을 수 밖에 없었다. 인쇄 및 출판, 사진술 까지도 그 영향이 미쳐 일본의 고전을 연상하게 하는 디자인의 잡지가 상당수를 이루었고, 표지에 사용되는 일러스트나 회화, 레이아웃등도 일본의 것을 그대로 모방하거나 형식을 고스란히 유지하는 모습을 보인다. 우리 스스로 한글활자를 새로 주조할 능력이 부족하였던 당시 상황으로 잡지표지 제호의 대부분이 한자로 표기되었고 여전히 세로쓰기, 우횡서로 되어 있는것을 볼 수 있다. 이는 서양 문명이 들어올 때에도 일본에 의해 수용될 수 밖에 없었고, 일본신문을 교과서로 삼아 한자가 대부분이었던 일본의 글틀인 ‘세로쓰기’를 그대로 답습한 이유이다.
그 당시를 대표하는 잡지 중 1914년 10월에 창간된 [청춘]의 창간호는 파격적인 분량인 총 300페이지로 발행되었다. 이광수의 단편소설을 게재함으로써 우리나라 최초로 근대 문학을 소개하고, 한국 문학의 저변을 육성하는 발판을 마련하였다. 또한 고희동의 서양화를 표지화로 하여 매우 화려하고 선명한 색채의 표지 디자인을 선보였고, 한자로 표기된 ‘청춘’이라는 제호는 검은 정사각형 안에 흰색 한자로 나타내어 화려한 색감의 그림과 어울려 강한 인상을 주고있다.
2 잡지의 새로운 출발과 질적인 성장, 그리고 전성기
2-1 아트디렉터의 도입으로 인한 한국만의 아이덴티티 형성
1976년 한국 브리태니커사에서 발행한 [뿌리깊은 나무]는 한국 최초로 아트디렉션 제도를 도입하여 시각적으로 높은 수준의 새로운 편집디자인을 소개하며 한국 잡지계에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 발행인 한창기는 우리 문화의 전통성에 깊은 애정을 지니고 그 아름다움을 발견해내는 안목을 지닌 사람으로 아트디렉터 이상철과 함께 참신하고 개념적인 디자인으로 한국의 미를 구현해냈다. 우리 전통문화의 아름다움을 재발견하고 전달한다는 편집정책 아래 당시로서는 과감한 한글 전용쓰기와 가로쓰기, 한글만이 지닌 아름다운 글을 싣고자 우리말 다듬기 등을 독창적으로 단행하였다. 특히 표지는 체계적인 그리드 시스템을 적절히 활용하여 통일성과 동시에 다양함을 느낄 수 있게 해 주었고, 크기와 위치를 매호 일관성 있게 적용함으로써 시각적 아이덴티티를 부여하였다. 발행인 한창기는 한글이 발전하려면 모듈화를 통한 탈 네모틀을 지향해야 한다는 생각아래 한국 최초로 모듈화하여 개발한 훈민정음체를 사용하여 표지의 제호에 적용하였다. 이 의미 있는 시도를 통해 디자인된 [뿌리깊은 나무]의 제호는 타 잡지와의 차별화는 물론 한글에 뿌리를 둔 우리만의 독창적인 잡지로서 그 면모를 보여주었고 나아가 한글 디자인의 발전에도 크게 이바지하였다.
창간호부터 전문 사진기자를 기용하여 촬영한 과감한 앵글의 사진과 세련된 레이아웃으로 디자인된 표지는 한국의 미를 신선하게 표현하면서 독자들의 시선을 붙잡았다. 목판용 괘선, 목판체, 궁서체, 전통문양, 따옴표 등 독특한 시각요소를 활용하였는데, 이러한 그래픽 요소들은 그리드 시스템 안에서 다양한 변화를 수반하고 리듬감을 부여한 동시에 한국 문화를 표현하는 완성도 높은 결과물을 이루어냈다. 한국고유의 정신과 조형미를 현대적으로 구현하면서 당대 큰 반향을 일으켰던 뿌리깊은 나무는, 한국 잡지디자인의 본질을 밝힌 선구적인 잡지로 우리 디자인 역사에 큰 획을 그은 최고의 디자인 유산이다.
[샘이깊은 물]은 [뿌리깊은 나무]의 발행인 한창기가 뿌리깊은 나무의 정신을 유지하면서 새롭게 발행한 잡지로 가장 한국적인 디자인을 실천했다는 평가를 받았다. 기존 여성잡지의 소비지향적이고 선정적인 측면을 탈피하면서 여성의 사회화와 환경, 교육문제를 깊이 다루어 여성의 사회 진출이 점차 활발해지던 당시의 사회 분위기를 반영하는 내용으로 구성되었다. 제호 [샘이깊은물]은 ‘용비어천가’의 한 대목에서 가져온 것으로 제호를 위해 개발한 ‘샘이 깊은 물체’(일명 샘물체)는 활자의 꼴, 크기, 자간, 행간, 글줄 길이에 이르기까지 모든 조판 개념을 독자의 입장에서 고려하여 제작되었다. 개발된 서체는 본문에도 활용하여 전용서체로서 활용도를 높이면서 [샘이깊은 물]만의 독창성을 부여하였다. 타 잡지와 달리 표지모델을 유명 연예인이 아닌 평범한 여성들을 다루었고, 표지의 포맷 또한 새롭고 독특한 구성으로 독자들은 물론 잡지계의 주목을 끌었다. [샘이깊은물]은 당시 대중지와 뚜렷이 구분되는 강력한 아이덴티티를 갖추며 한국의 정서와 아름다움을 가장 잘 표현한 잡지로 지금까지도 기억된다.
2-2- 텍스트 중심의 무크지
3 디지털화와 글로벌화를 통한 새로운 물결
3-1 디지털화, 글로벌화를 통한 현대적인 잡지로의 전환
3-2 거리의 감성, 스트리트 매거진
[ttl]은 1999년 대기업 SK텔레콤이 자사의 통신브랜드를 홍보하기 위해 제작하여 무료배포한 스트리트 매거진으로 ‘신세대’라는말의 유행과 함께 당시 젊은이들의 문화와 감성을 자유롭게 표현한 잡지이다. 영리목적이 아닌 기업 마케팅의 일환으로 만들어졌음에도 불구하고, 참신하고 자유로운 내용과 이미지로 다채롭고 자유롭게 디자인되어 당시 문화지의 트렌드를 선도하였다. 90년대 젊은 세대의 문화와 감성을 잘 표현한 표지는 스무 살의 감성답게 개성있고, 감각적 타입의 제호와 주요기사 목차의 레이아웃이 사진의 모델과 어우러져 하나의 스타일을 완성하였다.
잡지는 어떤 매체보다 대중과 가까이 호흡하고 다양한 지식과 흥미를 제공한다. 기호성 소모품에 지나지 않는다는 부정적인 견해를 고려한다고 하더라도 잡지는 사회의 현실을 반영하고 공동체적인 문제의식을 독자들에게 제시하는 문화의 산물임은 분명하다. 한국의 잡지는 지난 100년간 우리 현대사의 질곡마다 그 운명을 함께하며 변화와 발전을 거듭해 왔다. 지금까지 발간된 한국의 수많은 잡지 표지에는 각 시대의 역사와 문화의 키워드들이 당대 그래픽 디자이너들의 열정과 함께 고스란히 담겨 있다. 그리 길지는 않았지만, 결코 순탄치 않았던 성장 과정 속에서도 디자인의 토대를 마련하려는 수많은 노력이 있었고, 그러한 노력은 우리 디자인이 나아가야 할 길을 제시해주는 소중한 유산으로 남아 있다.